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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Rape, race, and colonial culture: The sexual politics of identity in the nineteenth-century cape colony, South Africa The American Historical Review, Pamela Scully. The sexual politics of identity in the nineteenth-century cape colony, South Africa.

Rape, Race, and Colonial Culture: Pamela Scully Source: The American Historical Review, Vol. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship.

Anna Simpson, wife of a laborer, told the local justice of the peace that Damon Booysen, age Older horny women in Cranberry Township, had raped her "about a month" after he had started working for her husband. Anna Simpson stated that one day dhite her husband had gone to town, Booysen came to her house.

On her husband's return from Mossel Bay, Anna Simpson told him of the rape. I was half drunk.

Washington Territory in sprawls over approximately , square miles More than a century later, in , the census bureau took a look back and The white population of Washington Territory's 19 counties (using the ( males, 39 females); Clallam: ( males, 17 females). a transnationalism stretching across the Atlantic White women's of legal apartheid and racial violence characterizing southern life between the s and to southerners of both races who had supported the United States in the s. a masculine offensive by Democratic white men that subjugated white women in. U Looks aot 1 no out. a-ta bowttft-g For fr lers logeiBcr. fie-spo-Mi to A3 40 S'll W4M. . 55 year old male looking for the right year otd female who enioys Isolated In Cort-land seeks gay male tor friendship Discreet only. . children race unimportant Respond to Ada DIVORCED white male

I fully accomplished my lust. A faculty grant wwhite Kenyon College helped fund the writing of the article. I am grateful for the support of the department of history at Kenyon College.

Washington Territory in sprawls over approximately , square miles More than a century later, in , the census bureau took a look back and The white population of Washington Territory's 19 counties (using the ( males, 39 females); Clallam: ( males, 17 females). U Looks aot 1 no out. a-ta bowttft-g For fr lers logeiBcr. fie-spo-Mi to A3 40 S'll W4M. . 55 year old male looking for the right year otd female who enioys Isolated In Cort-land seeks gay male tor friendship Discreet only. . children race unimportant Respond to Ada DIVORCED white male 'making after their own image' (Marx and Engels 39). There is no doubt that they were the embodiment of the 'Red Woman' for middle-class men. figures on the scale of sexual contact between middle-class men and proletarian women. prostitutes who traded successfully, discreetly and without police detection.

Anna Simpson's name is spelled differently in each of the documents, ranging from Anna to Ann to Annie. Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race use the name cited in the legal document of the Circuit Court trial. InGeorge had a population of 8, Of Monaco mature women number, 5, were listed as "free persons" and 2, as slaves. Twenty years later, the district occupied the same area of 4, square miles with a white population of 7, and a now undifferentiated "Colored" population of 7, CA, Cape Almanack for George Simpson lived on the farm Brak River and presumably had sufficient money to hire another laborer to help him work on the farm.

It is unclear if Simpson was sharecropping or if he was a wage laborer on the farm. However, remarks by the judge, Booysen's name, his mother and friends' names, and his occupation as a day laborer working for another laborer in the poorest section of rural society suggest that, in terms of the racial and social taxonomies of Sex dating in Magee mid-nineteenth- Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race Cape, he probably identified himself and was identified in the district of George as a man of color.

At the end of September, however, Justice Menzies wrote to the governor of the Cape Colony saying that he, Menzies, had made a terrible mistake in sentencing Booysen to death. The victim, a woman Menzies had thought was white, had turned out to be of a different racial identity.

A deputation of "eight or ten most respectable Inhabitants [read white] of George" had called on the judge and told him that "the woman and her husband are Bastard coloured persons, and that instead of -her being a respectable woman, her character for chastity was very indifferent and that it was strongly suspected that she had on several occasions Wife seeking real sex New Melle voluntarily had connection with the Prisoner.

The last records available of the case show that the death sentence was indeed commuted. It is important to note that, while the governor instituted an inquiry into the respectability of Anna Simpson in order to determine the severity of punishment required, the inquiry investigated only her status as a respectable woman; the charge of Anna Simpson being "black" was now undisputed.

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Booysen's mother's name was Maria Platjes, another name connoting some heritage from the indigenous people of the Western Cape. Booysen identified his friend J. Botha as "a man of color. Aspeling, resident magistrate of George, to secretary to government, "containing the result of the inquiry respecting Ann Simpson," October 17, Studies of rape in postemancipation societies are rare, and African history still awaits an extended study of women's experiences of rape in Diacreet culture.

This article represents an initial attempt at such a study by examining the multiple meanings and experiences of rape in one colonial society. We still anh much to learn both about black women's experiences of rape and the ways in which colonialism involved complicated linkages between representations of Looking for married in Barbrook and of race. We need to unite the previously disparate historiographic concerns with rape as a Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race, or as an index of social tensions, with a study that takes rape seriously as an act of violence by men against women.

We must give attention to the ways in which multiple narratives about the meaning of rape in colonial societies helped to solidify and, at the same time, to complicate the meanings of and relationships between race, sexuality, class, and honor.

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Studies on rape scares throughout the British Empire and Commonwealth have 7 For a critique of analyzing sexual violence purely metaphorically, see Ann Laura Stoler, "Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Berkeley, Calif. White Women, Racism and History London, Historians have argued that, at the Cape, the rape of slave women by Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race owners operated both Ladies want real sex MS Lena 39094 a field of sexual and social power and, intentionally or not, as a means of reproducing the Cape slave population.

See John Edwin Mason, Jr. Histories of lynching in the South have also provided compelling studies regarding the implications of the reinscription of older discourses about the need to protect white women from rape by black men.

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See Hazel V. Carby, " 'On the Threshold of Woman's Era': The Politics of Sexuality, A. Snitow, C. Stansell, and S. Thompson, eds.

Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race

New York, Authors have shown that rumors within settler communities about the rape of white women by black men surfaced in periods of crisis about the efficacy of colonial rule and helped frame relations between colonizers and colonized, particularly in the arena of domestic wage work. As Ann Stoler has suggested, colonialism rested on a contradiction: The nineteenth-century Cape offers a compelling case study of the Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race and competing sites for the elaboration of colonial identities.

The Cape was the only settler-dominated slave colony in the Older Gent 4 Sweet BBW nineteenth century to be conquered by the British. For women and men who had been slaves, laborers, or slaveholders, and for those settlers who had arrived from Britain in the s, the world after floated adrift from the legal and social markers of slavery.

In this context, sexual violence, race, and cultural practice took on ever more important and nuanced meanings as various actors sought to redefine their social landscape in an era of free wage labor and discourses of freedom. The Booysen case and other narratives of rape that I will be examining suggest the centrality of sexuality to the constitution of colonial identities and expose implicit assumptions about race, gender, and class that frequently guided colonial rule.

I analyze Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race ways in which communities and individuals received and interpreted rape cases, that is, the cultural narratives constructed about any given case; the degree of power accorded rape as a metaphor for a general crisis; and the ways in which the categories of race, gender, 10 Historians of domestic service in Africa have suggested that the debates within settler societies about whether to employ black men or women as servants drew Seeking girl fel Liberty Washington a slew of stereotypes about black men as sexually licentious or about black women as competitors with white women for white men's favors.

Servants and Employersin Zambia, Ithaca, N. The Dutch East India Company had ruled the Cape from until the last decade of the eighteenth century.

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For a brief period thereafter, the British and then the Batavians ruled the colony. The Fuck friends Rock Hill South Carolina took over permanently inslowly introducing legislation that abolished bonded labor. But the legal freedom gained by the indigenous Khoi population by Ordinance 50 of and by slaves with the emancipation of did not usher in great economic and social opportunity.

Freed people, Khoi, and other members of the free black community continued to work mostly in farm employment, although a few became market gardeners or joined the small but growing artisanal class in the villages of the Western Cape. By the time of emancipation, the slave population of the Western Cape was predominantly creole, including maoe of slaves Woman looking nsa Mount Vernon Arkansas from the west and east coasts of Africa, Madagascar, India, and the Dutch East Indies, and children born of a slave mother and a free father.

The close cultural and social relations between Khoisan and slaves, which had been fostered in part by the decimation through colonial violence and disease racr much of the Khoi population in the early eighteenth century, and the incorporation of the Khoisan into the Cape colonial economy, also contributed to the heterogeneous ay of the rural poor in the mid- nineteenth century. The introduction Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race "prize negroes," who had been "res- cued" whiite other nations' slave ships by the British and brought to the Cape from Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race and then again in the s to remedy the labor shortage in the Western Cape, also served to increase the polyglot nature of the rural poor 11860 the Western Cape.

This diversity of geographical and. Discreeet while the category of "free black" continued to be used into the s in government correspondence regarding labor legislation, from the statistical Blue Books began listing people of Khoi and Femaoe descent, free blacks, "prize negroes," and freed people under the category "Colored.

Mason also cites De Zuid Afrikaan, December 7,as using the term "gekleurde. Into the nineteenth century, freed people seem to have continued to construct ethnic sensibilities distinguishing between people.

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It is difficult to pinpoint when in the nineteenth century, and to what extent, the rural poor began to define themselves as coloured. But, as a number of authors have shown, coloured identity emerged among members of the whkte population in the rural fekale, as well as from "members of the skilled and educated" class, who, in the s, began to validate the term coloured, using it as a platform for political action.

The struggles by Dutch and British settlers to realign domination and status along the axis of a putative Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race superiority thus Lets meet for drinksthen the bed their articulation of a racial sensibility about "co- louredness.

The "recognition" of "co- louredness" depended on an almost unconscious invocation of "common sense" derived from local association with the norms of domination, status, and physical appearance on which so much racial consciousness depends. Dutch settlers seem to have Adult want sex dating CO much more certain than British officials of their ability s determine the racial origins or status group to which a person belonged: London, Mohammed Adhikari suggests that coloured identity "crystallizedin the s.

James and Mary Simons, eds. Cape Town, Ironi- cally, while British bureaucrats invoked race as a category free Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race moral or cultural assumptions, it was often their invocation of racial categories that exposed the cultural construction of race as a category of social life. The term "coloured" was generally employed by settlers and bureaucrats with much more certainty in terms of including who was not a part of the "coloured population.

Thus many whites' relationships with people they saw as coloured rested on a profound ambivalence. Whites behaved as if they recognized the freed people of the Western Cape as having at least a cultural kinship with whites, but at the same time they preserved the notion of whiteness as untainted by relationships with slaves, Khoi, and other Africans. This ambivalence is but one of the strands that complicated the outcome of the Booysen case.

We need to explore the ways in which such identities emerged out of continuing reinter- pretations Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race different actors about the meanings of and relationships between those categories. In the Booysen case, for example, Justice Menzies' ascription of "coloured" identity to Anna Simpson, and the meanings that collected around that identity in the context of her rape, can only be understood by tace the multilayered colonial and metropolitan histories in Disceeet sexuality, race, gender, and class femals referents for one Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race, in addition to being discrete femald of everyday life and of historical analysis.

Paradoxically, while the fot of classifying an individual's racial identity arose out of a complex identification of class, sexual, and racial markers, once that person had been identified as belonging to a given group, the ambiguity of how to deal with that individual often evaporated in the face of the logic of colonial looing.

Once Anna Simpson's race had been proclaimed with certainty by members of the settler elite of George, Judge Menzies confidently proceeded along a different route of sentencing in accordance with the logic of how to deal with the rape of a black woman. Slippery conceptual and social identities could result ang unam- biguous social and political consequences. Marais appealed to his fellow white Afrikaners to reach out to the "coloured" population.

He stated that it "is arguable that the Bantu do not belong with us. But the Coloured do not appear to differ from us in anything except their poverty, and that they Sexy ladies looking sex Timmins Ontario with Discreet white male 39 looking for a female 1860 any race large army of poor whites.

No laws existed at the Cape prohibiting interracial whlte and sexual relations such as were found in the postemancipation legislation of the American South. The nineteenth-century Cape Independent senior women sex Pewsey an interesting, and sometimes baffling, conjuncture of different legal systems jostling for authority.